Singleton Design Pattern

It is a special class, for which we can not have more than one instance in system at a time. It provides a single global point of access to that instance. Hence it ensures that only one instance can be created for this class and every user is forced to use only that single instance for any operation.


  • Any Utility Class: Generally utility classes do not have states with these and so a single instance of that class can serve the whole system.
  • Memory Manager: An object which is responsible to manage the memory in system. Obviously only there should be only one instance of this object so that it can update the objects with the current memory availability and other objects can update its state for expected memory requirement. 

Factory Design Pattern

It is responsible for creating the objects. As name depicts, it is a factory for creating any specific kind of objects. It abstracts the user from the details of creation mechanism, and also abstracts the actual implementation class of instantiated object. The only requirement is that the ‘object to create’ should be of some already defined type. The actual implementation may differ based on the current scenario.


  • Maruti Car Factory Object: We can ask this object to return us a Maruti car based on any runtime parameter which defines its model like Wagon R, or Esteem. It is the responsibility of this factory object to return us required car implementation based on specific parameters.
  • Row Renderer Factory Object: We can ask it to return the renderer like structured row renderer, or a designable row renderer.

Builder Design Pattern

It separates the construction of complex object from its representation, so that number of different representations can be build based on the requirement. It is similar to factory pattern, but it does not return simple descendant of base class. The factory is concerned with what is made and the builder with how it is made. Factory simply returns an instance of related class of base type, but builder returns a composition of various classes depending on the specified state. 


  • Editor Builder: Suppose you are creating a UI for workflow where a number of different types of nodes can exist. We need different editors to edit these nodes, which can be very complex in structure. Here we can use builder which can build the desired editor.  Even editors can vary in structure based on current state of system.

Prototype Design Pattern

It suggests, instead of creating a new instance of any object, make a copy of existing object and modify its properties as required. Generally cloning is used to create the copy of an existing object. 


  • Drag ‘n Drop: While implementing drag and drop functionality in a UI, we need to show the shadow of items under dragging operation so that user can decide the place to drop the dragged item. Here instead of creating a new instance of item and setting the required properties, best way is to create a prototype of existing object and modify the required properties.
  • Filtered data set using same result set – We retrieved a large data as result set from database. Now we want to show different views on UI based on specified filter criteria. One way is to fetch the same data for every filter criteria, another way is to make the prototype of result set and apply filter to it. It will be less costly than repetitive database access. 

Adapter Design Pattern

Adapter is used to adapt the behavior/functionalities of an existing class but with a different interface.
It can be implemented by two ways, by inheritance (also called class adapter) or by composition (also called object adapter). Either we can extend the existing class and use its functionalities in new interface method, or we can use a reference of existing class in new object for using existing functionalities. 


  • We are making data bound UI components, which are implementing some of our proprietary interface to support the data loading/unloading. But UI components are already defined with Swing library so we want to use these and just want to bind them with data sources. Here we can extend our new components from existing Swing component and implement our data binding interface to it.
  • Use of Window Adapter while intercepting the window closing event. 

Composite Design Pattern

It is a collection of objects, anyone of which can be either a composite or just a primitive object. It enables us to represent a single object or a collection of objects using the same interface.


  • If we are designing a runtime system structure for java program, we can implement it in a tree form where every node can be a executable piece of statement and it may have other nodes in it (which should be executed before it) or may be a leaf node, which just need to execute itself and return the result to the parent (or makes the changes in shared state cache).
  • If we are designing a system to display the employee structuring of an organization. It could be in tree form or in any other form. But designing the data structure using composite pattern can easily manage the requirements for hierarchy structure, where any employee work as individual or may have a number of other employees as sub-ordinates. 

Bridge Design Pattern

It is used to separate the interface from its implementation and enables us to change either interface or implementation easily. Generally it is used to keep the client interface constant and even if we change the implementation.

It seems quite similar to adapter pattern, where we can adapt the functionalities of any other class and expose this with a separate interface. But the difference is in purpose, Adapter is implemented to use the existing implementation with a new interface but Bridge is used to separate the implementation from interface to user so that user won’t be affected by any change in implementation.


  • We want to present some data to user. Based on the user profile, the data can be either in simple list form having names only or in a table having complete details. Here we can implement the logic to fetch the data and arranging it in required format in a separate class which can be accessed from user interface which could be a list, table or tree. 

Proxy Design Pattern

It enables us to avoid the creation of resource consuming object until its actual need in the system. A complex and heavy object can be represented by a simple proxy object which creates the illusion of actual object till the actual requirement of that object. The proxy object initializes the actual object whenever it gets the first request from client. So it delays the initialization of heavy states until these are actually required.


  • In ORM tools, collections having a large number of items used to be initialized lazily using proxy pattern. Before actual initialization, only a proxy object creates the illusion of actual object.

Flyweight Design Pattern

Flyweight Pattern

Sometimes in system, a number of instances are required to represent the data even when all the instances are similar in structure and basic composition but with a few different parameters. Here using flyweight pattern, one instance can be used to represent the data by identifying the variable data and make the object configurable for this before every method call.


  • In JTable, a column renderer serve the purpose to paint every cell on the table only table configures this renderer for its position, data and other variable attributes before using it for painting the next cell.
  • While painting a word on the screen, the same character instance is being used to paint complete word by just changing its location and data value.

Facade Design Pattern

Façade Pattern

It is used to hide the complexities of system behind a simple interface. Generally with time, the simple system grows to complex systems having a number of different APIs and objects to interact with. It happens especially if we are following the design patterns. Due to this increased complexities, it becomes very difficult for client to remember the exact flow of API and the right way to use it. Façade comes here and provides a simple interface to user, thus hides the complete complexity behind it. 


  • One way to access database is to use the raw API of JDBC which may not be very convenient for every user or user may need to repeat same code again and again to access the database. Other alternative is to create a ‘Data Access Object’ which can hide the complexities of JDBC API and can provide a simple and convenient interfaced to user for most of the required operations. So we can define a SQL Data Access Manager which can provide methods like execute query, get table names etc. Here SQL Data Access Manager is working as façade.
  • Any session bean on server most of the time works as façade.
  • An Object Manager on server which allows the user to save any object and fire the relevant events in a single call.

What is the Use of Ant Build Tool

Ant is a build tool and is used in build process of softwares.

Now the question is that what is a build process? Build process is used to build the software, which comprises a list of tasks items  required to deploy the software application and make it runnable. A few task items are as:

  • Creating the basic structure for project, which is required for deployment. The structure may vary from project to project or depending upon the type of application
  • Taking the latest checkout of the project files from any source code version system
  • Copying the required set of files to the desired directories. This may include filtering of the files which are not required in deployment, but are required only for development. 
  • Compiling the source code to generate output runnable files
  • Copying the required non-source code files to output folders
  • Generating the documentation by using various tools like Java Doc or PHP Documenter. 
  • Running the test cases on the compiled source code
  • Package the output in required format, like jar, war, ear etc
  • Copy the packaged output to the target directory, like in application directory of web servers
  • Generate the schema in database
  • Run scripts for entering sample data in database
  • Starting/Restarting the server
  • And so on