Vedic Math - Square Root-2

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In this article, we shall continue discussing the remaining part of discussion 'how to find the Square Root using Vedic Math'. In last article , we discussed the technique for 4-digit numbers, In this article, we shall discuss the another technique which is useful for bigger numbers. In this method, we shall use "Duplex" (mentioned in General Squaring).

So, First observation:
  • if number is 69563217 then n=8, Digits in the square root is 8/2=4, pairing is 69'56'32'17 and the first digit will be 8(82=64)
  • if number is 764613731 then n=9, Digits in the square root is (9+1)/2=5, pairing is 7'64'61'37'31 and the first digit will be 2 (22=4)

Recall "Duplex"
• for a single digit 'a', D = a2. e.g. D(4) = 16
• for a 2-digit number of the form 'ab', D = 2( a x b ). e.g. D(23) = 2(2x3) = 12
• for a 3-digit number like 'abc', D = 2( a x c ) + b2. e.g. D(231) = 2(2x1) + 32 = 13
• for a 4-digit number 'abcd', D = 2( a x d ) + 2( b x c ) e.g. D(2314) = 2(2x4) + 2(3x1) = 22
• for a 5-digit number 'abcde', D = 2( a x e ) + 2( b x d ) + c2 e.g. D(14235) = 2(1x5) + 2(4x3) + 22 = 38  and so on.

As we know how to calculate the duplex of a number, now we learn how to use it in calculating the square root of a number?
We will explain using an example.

Example:  734449

Step1: n=6, Digits in the square root is 6/2=3, pairing is 73'44'49. Rearrange the numbers of two-digit groups from right to left as follows:
         | 73 :  4  4  4  9
.|    :
.|    :
     As you see, in above representation, we provide spaces in front of the numbers to perform straight division, if required.

Step2: Now, find the perfect square less than the first group 73 i.e 64 and its square root is 8. Write down this 8 and the reminder 9 (73-64=9) as shown below:
         | 73 :   4   4   4   9
     16| 64 :9
         | 8  :

     We also calculate twice of number '8' (i.e. 8 x 2 = 16), and put that number to the left of the "|" on the second line as shown above. Here, number '16' is the divisor and which is always double of the quotient (here, quotient is 8).

Step3: Next is the gross dividend, the number which we have written after the colon on the second line appended in front of the next digit of the square. Thus, our gross dividend is 94.
     Since there are no digits to the right of the " " on the answer line, we will not subtract anything here. If there are any digits on the answer line to the right of the " ", then we calculate duplexes for that digit and subtract it from dividend. But here, without subtracting anything from the gross dividend, we divide 94 by the divisor 16 and put down the second Quotient digit 5 and the second reminder 14 in their proper place.