Create your own Hybrid Project Life Cycle

There are various project life cycle approaches in use for projects. All of these have their own pros and cons. So process should be picked after analyzing these pros and cons from project perspective. But it might be possible that none of the existing approaches are actually catering to all of your project or Organization requirements. Hence, it is also very much possible to mix more than one approaches, may be in different phases of project or in different activities. Many of the projects are executed with hybrid approaches. To understand this, let us first understand about most popular approaches in brief.

Waterfall Approach
It is one of the most used approaches for projects till now. It is in use since long. The approach suggests to plan for the whole project requirements in one go i.e.

  • Collect all requirements
  • Analyze and freeze the requirements
  • Do analysis and design for complete functions
  • Plan and Schedule the tasks for whole project
  • Complete the construction
  • Execute the testing of all functions
  • Fix the issues
  • Make the project live
  • Perform Maintenance activities
So you would see, it is a sequential approach to perform and complete all activities for a project going through conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design, Construction, Testing, Deployment to production and then Maintenance. Waterfall model comes from manufacturing and construction industries initially. Then it later adopted for software development also. And it actually worked well initially. It performs well for projects with comparatively stable requirements. 

Points in favor of this approach are that it give emphasis to complete the work for each phase with utmost perfection. It asks to design the system perfectly in design phase itself to avoid any restructuring later which can cost lot of money due to changes at large scale. It advocates to close the requirements in first phase itself, to avoid the changes later in project life. Due to these reasons, it results into a very stable project life cycle, easy to predict - plan - and budget. So it is good for budgeting also. It emphasize of documentation for each phase of project, and hence helps in creating the rich knowledge base. This remove the risk of loss of knowledge if any key member or members leave the project.

What is Pagination?

In many use cases, there is a generic requirement to show the list of data to user. User should be able to see the list of data, to perform search and sorting operations on this data. User should also be able to navigate to any data record anytime. This requirement demands to fetch the large amount of data from database and list it on UI for the user. Then this data can be filtered using various search criteria and can be sorted also depending upon user input. Approach to fetch the data can be different depending upon architecture and implementation of application, like data can be fetched directly from database in case of embedded applications, or 2 tier architecture or through some services in 3 tier architecture. The process flow used to be like:
  • Take inputs from user what kind of data she wants to see
  • Interact with database directly or through service (depending upon architecture) to get this data 
  • Display this data to user
  • Filter or sort the data depending upon user action on UI
For example, open Search for any word. You will get search results in list form, and various page number given at the bottom of the page to navigate to different pages. 

Now if there are thousands of data records in database for given inputs, all of this data can not be shown to user in one go. Showing this on same screen will be having problems like: 
  • It will not be a good experience for user, as she will need to scroll up and down a lot and information will be unreadable practically.
  • It will not be good for performance of application, as application may get out of memory or may face slow response due to large amount of data in memory, or data transfer from database.
To solve first problem mentioned above, we need to divide the data in small parts to show the user one part at a time. For example, we can divide data in parts having 50 records each. Then each of the parts can be shown to user one by one. Once user see first part, she can request for next or previous part and hence corresponding 50 records can again be shown on screen to user. These parts are called pages, and this process is called pagination - which divides the large data in pages (having limited records) and show these to user.

Vedic Math - Multiplication of any Numbers

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In the previous article, we have discussed few cases of Multiplication with "vertically and crosswise" sutra. In this article, we shall learn the remaining cases.

E. Multiplying three digit by three digit numbers
For example: abc x pqr

1) vertically                                              (a x p)
2) crosswise in both directions and add    (a x q) + (b x p)
3) crosswise in both directions and add    (a x r) + (b x q) + (c x p)
4) crosswise in both directions and add    (b x r) + (c x q)
5) vertically                                              (c x r)

Step2 and Step4 are same as we did in the previous sections i.e. multiplying crosswise with two columns at a time. But in Step3, we multiply crosswise using the outer columns, then multiply vertically in the middle column and add these numbers.